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- Evaluative Criteria for Qualitative Research in Health Care: Controversies and Recommendations
It has increasingly become an interdisciplinary resource beyond Health and Social Care. Through these collaborations and activities, we take our knowledge transfer activities and development of innovative qualitative research methods further, clearly beyond the health and social care arena. By establishing a Centre in Qualitative Research we formally acknowledge a history of achievements and expertise which serves as a focus for emerging developments in:.
We pride ourselves on research that makes a real difference to the world around us. We believe that research, education and professional practice belong together with each shaping and informing the other. Improving the retention rate of registered nursing staff through collaborative development and use of an evidence-based nurse retention model.
Members from both centres will be working together to share ideas, skills and resources across the fusion areas of Education, Research and Professional Practice. CEL are developing a strong creative strand, led by Curie Scott with Lego, Collage and Origami workshops continuing to be taken forward in the University. For example, using collage with 60 post-graduate research students and Lego with MA Corporate Communication students.
Origami is used across education and research, read a report on the Origami in Science, Maths and Education conference here. List of dates and topics can be found here. Join us in our mutual creative endeavours!
Critical Workshop 2018
Using these tools, they have engaged community partners not only through workshops and trainings, but also as participant researchers and members of an Advisory Committee. This conference will be of interest for anybody with an interest in wellbeing: practice, education or research. The Centre for. The Centre for Qualitative Research has developed a philosophically driven approach to caring, health and wellbeing which involve humanising practices. The research work and ideas of the centre support pedagogic innovations and developments at undergraduate and postgraduate levels; the centre includes staff who work across disciplinary boundaries, stimulating interdisciplinary research, and offering inspirational approaches to practice development, all of which contribute to fusion.
With a focus on the human condition, we are supportive of creative approaches, using the arts to help the personal as well as academic development of students and staff; we see these as key to high-quality professional practice, supporting an excellent student experience, and high staff morale. Researchers, lecturers and postdoctoral staff are aligned to the Centre. The work of the Centre underpins the Professional doctorate and, traditionally, has attracted many successful PhD candidates.
Members have local, national, and international partnerships with social sciences, health, and social care organisations that are committed to wider social wellbeing activity. Members of the Centre lead qualitative research, education at both undergraduate and postgraduate level , and practice initiatives. There is a great deal of cross-fertilisation of their work between disciplines.
In contrast to post-positivism, a naturalistic philosophy asserts that reality is subjective, rather than objective, because there is not one single reality, but multiple realities and the knowledge gained is only relevant within that particular situation or context In qualitative research, the research process is inductive, rather than deductive, and begins with broad exploratory aims that provide a focus for study without pre-empting which aspects of the experience may be deemed important or relevant. Researchers use qualitative research designs when there is a gap in knowledge or when little is known about a particular phenomenon, experience, or concept 1.
Qualitative researchers study people in natural settings and attempt to make sense of, or interpret, the meanings people attribute to their experiences 4. Qualitative research is used to explore health-related or illness-related experiences or groups where little is known, or the when current understanding seems inadequate 6.
It is also used to gain new insights into previously researched phenomena, groups, experiences, or concepts. It often precedes quantitative work, but may be used concurrently or sequentially 3,7. This interplay between and among qualitative and quantitative designs is referred to as mixed or multiple methods and will be the focus of the third article in this series.
The most distinctive characteristics of qualitative research are that the researcher is also considered an instrument for data collection and resultant data are primarily words or narrative descriptions rather than numbers. While quantitative researchers work with a few variables and many subjects, qualitative researchers rely on a few subjects or participants and many variables In qualitative research, participants are purposively selected for their experience with the phenomena of interest as opposed to a random selection or sampling from a larger population.
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The data from selected participants are considered rich in detail and are often referred to as dense or thick descriptions. Typical sample sizes vary from few up to 30 participants. This is quite different from quantitative samples that often require larger number of participants, guided by statistical power analyses. The power in qualitative research is in the richness of description and detail of specific lived experiences, social processes, cultures, and narrative accounts. The methods used in qualitative designs are less structured than in quantitative designs and primarily include multiple in-depth interviews, ongoing participant-observation, written diaries, narrative descriptions, and focus groups.
The four types of qualitative research designs most often used to conduct nursing research include: 1 phenomenology, 2 grounded theory, 3 ethnography, and 4 narrative inquiry. The purpose of phenomenological research is to describe specific phenomena of interest as they are lived and experienced by individuals.
The focus of phenomenological studies is on understanding what an experience means within the context of people's lives. This is referred to as capturing the lived experience. For example, a research question for this approach might be " What is the experience of teens living in a family at genetic risk for Huntington disease? In this example, teen participants would be sought whose parent or grandparent had tested positive or had symptoms of Huntington disease.
To select a sample for a phenomenological study, the researcher purposively selects individuals or groups that have experienced the phenomenon. Inclusion and exclusion criteria are established based on the focus for study. Estimating the number of participants depends on the amount and quality of information elicited from each participant, the scope of the study, the nature of the topic, and the number of interviews per participant 9. In a focused study, with a clearly defined topic and limited scope, a relatively small sample size 10 or fewer participants is required.
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However, if each participant is interviewed only once and the amount of information limited, large numbers up to 60 participants are sought. The key is to reach saturation of data. Saturation is the state where no more new data of importance to the study emerges and the elements of all of the themes, concepts, and theory are accounted for Researchers use a grounded theory design when they are interested in phenomena involving the social processes underlying human experiences and behavior 5.
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For example, a research question for this approach might be " How do children cope following the death of a sibling? The different concepts and patterns of coping that emerge from the analysis of the data are then synthesized into a theory to serve as a guide for further understanding or testing. The main idea is that the theory of how children cope emerges from the descriptions of those experiencing the phenomenon, not from ideas from those who have not.
The aim of a grounded theory approach is the generation of theory that comes from, or is "grounded" in, the data The primary characteristics of grounded theory designs are theoretical sampling and the constant comparison of data with emerging categories 3. Data collection and analysis occur simultaneously and each piece of new data is constantly compared and contrasted with previously identified concepts 5.
Sample sizes tend to be larger in grounded theory designs, when compared to other qualitative designs, because of need for theoretical sampling. Theoretical sampling means that the selection of participants is directed by the emerging analysis 6.
In other words, the researcher begins with a focused sample, but as different concepts emerge, the researcher seeks out additional participants based on further understanding of these concepts. This process often includes the search for outliers and negative cases so the full range of possible experiences or a full understanding takes place. Theoretical sampling continues until the researcher is satisfied that the theory synthesized from the data and concepts are reflective of the social process under study.
Researchers use ethnography as a research design when they are seeking a deeper understanding or description of a specific culture, group, or community Ethnography involves experiencing , most often by participant observation, enquiring , through interviews and oral histories, and examining , the study of cultural documents and artifacts.
Most of the time, ethnography is equated with the extended immersion of the researcher in the culture, group, or community under study. This is often referred to as fieldwork and the extensive notes taken by the researcher are referred to as field notes. Immersion in the field helps the researcher identify key informants, customs, and artifacts that are so enmeshed in the group being studied that they would probably not be identified by simple interview.
Although ethnography is the research design most often thought of when studying culture, the word culture can be interpreted in many ways.
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Culture can be defined as the way of life of a group learned behaviors that are socially constructed and transmitted Each of these cultures has its own way of communicating, its own customs, rites of passage, and artifacts. This broader interpretation of ethnography and culture is being used more often in research today.
Using ethnography, the researcher's responsibility is to describe the unique and distinctive processes or rules of behavior of the subculture or culture with the primary aim of further understanding and communication. The important concept in ethnographic research design is the emphasis on obtaining an emic, rather than etic, perspective.
An emic perspective is the cultural member's, insider's, or native's point of view or perspective 9. This perspective is essential as it prevents the imposition of the values and beliefs of researchers and other outsiders. The outsider, or etic , perspective has been prevalent for too long both in health care and in research Ethnography is often very time consuming and intense for the researcher as data collection involves ongoing immersion in the culture and participant observation.
Narrative inquiry is a broadly determined and interpreted research design that involves individual narrative accounts and the interpretation of their meaning Narrative accounts can be obtained from a number of groups including patients, family, and caregivers. In narrative inquiry, the researcher studies the lives and experiences of individuals or groups by asking them to talk about or story their experiences.
The resultant narratives are analyzed within and across individuals and then re-told or re-storied by the researcher 3. The primary aim of narrative inquiry is to listen and question earlier assumptions.
Evaluative Criteria for Qualitative Research in Health Care: Controversies and Recommendations
For example, children are typically understood through adult proxy, usually their parents. When children themselves are asked about their experiences, their narrative accounts are often quite different. The same can be said of patients and others in the same room. Individuals are purposively selected for participation in narrative inquiry studies based on the research focus and criterion under study.